The picturesque Ferghana Valley is located in the eastern part of Uzbekistan. It is the most densely populated region of Uzbekistan, with almost a third of the country's population. The diamond-shaped valley is 300 km from east to west and 170 km from north to south. The mild climate of the Ferghana Valley allows a growing season of 240 days per year. Thanks to that, the primary emphasis on the production of cotton, silk and other agricultural crops has turned a large part of the valley into an oasis. With the primary crop being cotton in close to 25,000 sq. km of fertile land, there is scarcely a hectare of uncultivated land. In ancient times, the exceptional flora of the region gave the Ferghana Valley the name "Golden Valley".
The Ferghana Valley is rich in a number of natural resources including gold, oil, copper and other raw materials. The Syr Darya River, one of the greatest rivers of Central Asia, runs across the valley and is fed by more than 70 mountain streams. Birds including seagulls and pheasants are aplenty on the shores of the Syr Darya.
The first ancient settlements in the Ferghana Valley appeared more than 5000 years ago and for a long time Kokand was the main city of Ferghana valley. The first written evidence about the town of Khavikand can be found in the 10th century chronicles where it was mentioned as a town located on the Great Silk Road and famous for its crafts. Kokand was also a big religious center with 35 madrassahs and 100 mosques during its years of prosperity. Unfortunately, the majority of them were ruined in the course of time. Besides that, Andijan is also one of the most ancient cities of Ferghana Valley.