Most common language spoken is Uzbek, but Russian is a widely spoken native or second language particularly in large cities. In different regions of Uzbekistan, other languages are also widely spoken such as Tajik in Samarkand and Bukhara. Individuals speaking in more than one language are common in large cities and in ethnically diverse areas. However, with Uzbekistan’s present policy of moving towards the West, the knowledge of English has become increasingly common.
Uzbekistan has a great number of sunny days. Tourist’s season in Uzbekistan falls on spring months that are March, April and May, the second half is in August, September and October. Winter month’s temperatures ranges from -10°C to 30°C and are suitable for the lovers of mountains and winter sports such as skiing. The average annual temperature is approximately 13°C.
Under the 1992 Constitution, Uzbekistan is a secular and democratic republic country. Political system of the Republic is parliamentary democracy with a legislative organ Oliy Majlis (Supreme Council), executive body (government) and legal proceeding system. The head of executive power is President, directly elected to a seven-year term. Executive power rests with the President. The President appoints a Cabinet of Ministers with the approval of the legislature. The Cabinet of Ministers carries the day-to-day running of the country. The President also appoints regional governors.
The physical environment of Uzbekistan is diverse, ranging from the flat, desert topography that comprises almost 80 percent of the country’s territory to mountain peaks in the east reaching about 4,500 meters above sea level. Located in the heart of Central Asia, Uzbekistan occupies more than 447,400 square kilometres, measuring 925km from North to South and 1400km from West to East. Along the borders on each of the former Soviet Asian Republic which is Kazakhstan 2203km, Tajikistan 1161km, Kyrgyzstan 1099km and Turkmenistan 1621km , and in the south – on Afghanistan 137km.
Predominantly, 85% of Uzbeks are Muslims and approximately 15% are worshippers of other religions (Orthodoxes, Catholics, Jews and etc; there are about 16 confessions). Although constitutionally allowing rights to freedom of religion, Uzbekistan maintains a ban on all religious activities not approved by the state.