Introduction


Uzbekistan

The history of Uzbekistan covers about 1.5 millennia.

Situated along the upper of Amu-Dar (The Oxus), Syr-Dar (The Jaxartes) and their tributaries has always been the different from the rest of central Asia.


By the 4th century B.C, after the campaigns of Alexander the Great, trade along the Silk Road made the area emerge as an important trading center; cultural contact intensified and a variety of religions flourish. Many other invaders were here after but no one left much destruction as much as the Mongols led by Genghis Khan in the 13th century A.D. Vast migrations of nomadic Turks from the northern steppe areas increased drastically. However, in the late 14th century the tribal prince Amir Temur known as Tamerlane united the nations of Central Asia to fight against the Mongols and in victor y founded a powerful land with its capital in Samarkand.


For more than 2 centuries, the Temurids were ruling turning this place into the centre of Central Asia introducing the ‘Uzbek’ term in the 15th and 16th centuries A.D during the period of Muhammad Shaybani Khan. Bukhara, Kok and Khiva Khanates were established under independent states but again the independent doesn’t last long when the neighbouring Russia could not ignore the geopolitically important region, as it was a great economic opportunity for Russia.


Tashkent is the administrative centre of Turkestan. In 1924, this territory was joined to Soviet Union. Since then, for more than 70 years Uzbekistan was under the Soviet regime before declaring independence of the country on 31st August 1991, which was officially named the Republic of Uzbekistan. 1st September was proclaimed Independence Day.


Since September 1991 to July 1993 the Republic of Uzbekistan was officially recognized by 160 states. On 2 March 1992 the country joined the United Nations. Overwhelming support from the nations for independence (98.2% of the population voted) has triggered the following: the government line was expressed during presidential elections and a referendum on political sovereignty (29 December 1991). Islam Karimov won 86% of the vote and became the first President of the new Republic of Uzbekistan.